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The acoustic characteristics of a space with regard to reverberation. A room with a lot of reverb is said to be "live"; one without much reverb is "dead."

Amplifier (Amp)

A device which increases signal level. Many types of amplifiers are used in audio systems. Amplifiers typically increase voltage, current or both.

Automatic Vocal Cancel

Automatic Vocal Cancel is the the same as Vocal Replace. When a singer is listening to the guide vocal on a multiplex disc and starts singing into the microphone, the vocal on the disc stops, when you stop singing into the microphone the guide vocal comes back.


Listening term, refers to an excessive bass response that has a peak(s) in it.


Listening term. Usually refers to too much upper frequency energy.


CDGs do not have lead vocals. They only have background vocals and instrumentals.

CDGs are equal to size as a normal 5" CD (standard CD size) with TV graphics. Words to the songs appear on a TV screen when the disc is played on a CD+G player and hooked up to a TV. Also compatible with standard audio players.

CDGs (Compact Disc Plus Graphics) are used for karaoke media. They usually have about 15 songs per each disc and come with the lead singer's voice removed. Instrumentals and backup singers are left intact. The premise is to substitute your voice as the lead singer's voice. These discs are usually more expensive than CDGMs (Compact Disc Plus Graphics Multiplex) and usually purchased by professionals and the serious karaoke enthusiast. If you are comfortable that you know the melodies to these songs, this is likely your best purchase. You get more songs than you would on a CDGM.

Please also see CDGM in the glossary.


Also know as Compact Disc Plus Graphics Multiplex.

CDGMs have lead vocals that can be removed.

CDGMs are equal to size as a normal 5" CD (standard CD size) with TV graphics. Words to the songs appear on a TV screen when the disc is played on a CD+G player and hooked up to a TV. Also compatible with standard audio players.

CDGMs (Compact Disc Plus Graphics Multiplex) are used for karaoke media. They usually have about 8 songs per each disc and come with the lead singer's voice. The lead singer's voice can be removed with a player that has a balance control or a multiplex control. The premise is to substitute your voice as the lead singer's voice. Background vocals and backup singers are provided. These discs are usually less expensive than CDGs (Compact Disc Plus Graphics) and usually purchased by home users and passive karaoke enthusiasts. If you do not know the melodies to these songs, CDGM should be your purchase. You have the advantage of hearing the lyrics and removing them over and over. A perfect way to train.

Please also see CDG in the glossary.


Refers to a type of distortion that occurs when an amplifier is driven into an overload condition. Usually the "clipped" waveform contains an excess of high-frequency energy. The sound becomes hard and edgy. Hard clipping is the most frequent cause of "burned out" tweeters. Even a low-powered amplifier or receiver driven into clipping can damage tweeters which would otherwise last virtually forever.

Decibel (dB)

Named after Alexander Graham Bell. We perceive differences in volume level in a logarithmic manner. Our ears become less sensitive to sound as its intensity increases. Decibels are a logarithmic scale of relative loudness. A difference of approx. 1 dB is the minimum perceptible change in volume, 3 dB is a moderate change in volume, and about 10 dB is an apparent doubling of volume
0 dB is the threshold of hearing, 130 dB is the threshold of pain.
Whisper: 15-25 dB
Quiet background: about 35 dB
Normal home or office background: 40-60 dB
Normal speaking voice: 65-70 dB
Orchestral climax: 105 dB
Live Rock music: 120 dB+
Jet aircraft: 140-180 dB


The part of a dynamic loudspeaker attached to the voice coil that moves and produces the sound. It usually has the shape of a cone or dome.


Same media as Laser Discs, only in a 5" CD format


Players, speakers, amplifiers, and microphones


Electronic set of filters used to boost or attenuate certain frequencies.


The range of human hearing is commonly given as 20-20,000Hz (20Hz-20kHz). One hertz (Hz) represents one cycle per second, 20Hz represents 20 cycles per second and so on. Lower numbers are lower frequencies


To increase in level. The function of a volume control.


Audio noise that sounds like air escaping from a tire.


Audio electronic noise that has a steady low frequency pitch.


The Hybrid CD+G format means that these discs can be played in a personal computer (using Windows Media Player) as well as your karaoke player.


Karaoke is making anyone the singing star they’ve always wanted to become. In Karaoke, you can have the same music playing in the background from your favorite professional group, while you sing the lyrics. Don’t know the words? No problem. Karaoke sound tracks allows the lyrics to scroll across the screen of a standard TV. Now, anyone can be the star! Karaoke sound tracks utilizes the same basic media you would find for most formats throughout the music industry. Compact Discs (CDs) provide both lyrics and instrumentals playing simultaneously.

Key Control

(digital key control, pitch control, key changer) - Raises or lowers all the notes to help you sing in your range. Digital key change effects only the pitch, not the tempo

Line Level

CD players, VCRs, Laserdisc Players etc., are connected in a system at line level, usually with shielded RCA type interconnects. Line level is before power amplification. In a system with separate pre-amp and power-amp the pre-amp output is line level. Many surround sound decoders and receivers have line level outputs as well.


Mid frequency bass, usually frequencies just above the sub-bass range, from around 100 - 400 Hz or so.


A speaker, (driver), used to reproduce the middle range of frequencies. A midrange is combined with a woofer for low frequencies and a tweeter for high frequencies to form a complete, full-range system.


What is MP3+G?

MP3+G is very similar to the very popular CD+G disc format. MP3's are compressed music files that have CD quality music stored in a small file size. When paired up with graphics, you have music playing with lyrics (graphics) shown on a display. MP3+G is gaining popularity at a very rapid rate in this digital age. Why use MP3+G?

MP3+G is easy to play, record, create and download. Many websites are offering MP3+Gs today so a lot of songs are easily accessible. You can either play them with a computer, burn them into a CD+G disc, or load them into a memory card and play them through players that have the feature. Tech Info & Tips

MP3+Gs consists of two files (.mp3 & .cdg) that must have the same file name. The file extensions are different so you should not have any problems having the same file name in the same folder. If found on the internet, the two files are usually compressed into a zip file that will allow you download 1 file that actually contain both .mp3 and .cdg. Once unzipped/uncompressed, an MP3+G player will be able to open the files. Some MP3+G player software are actually able to play a .zip file directly.

The paired .mp3 and .cdg files can be combined into a .bin file and burned into a CDR with the proper software and CD burner.


Listening term. A sound that is poorly defined, sloppy or vague. For example, a "muddy" bass is often boomy with all the notes tending to run together.


See CDGM (Multiplex)


To greatly decrease the volume level. Many receivers and pre-amplifiers have a muting control which allows the volume level to be cut way down without changing the master volume control. Great for when the phone rings.


Also known as: NEOG, NEO CDG, NEO CD+G, NEO CD+Graphics NEO+G is a proprietary format developed by RSQ manufacturer. This technology allows about 75 songs on a single disc. Some karaoke sound track manufacturers have opted to produce NEO+G compatible discs. You MUST have an RSQ NEO compatible player to play an NEO+G disc.

NEO+Gs are equal to the size of a standard 5" CD. Lyrics to the songs appear on a TV screen when the disc is played on a NEO+G player and hooked up to a TV.

NEO+G just have the same sound quality and graphics as a CD+G, but they have more advanced functions for your singing pleasure. NEO+Gs do not include lead vocals. They only have background vocals and instrumentals.

NEO+G Features:
  • NEO+G disc contains many more songs than regular CD+G
  • The list of songs will be displayed on the TV screen
  • Search and reserve songs while playing
  • Reserve up to 99 songs to sing
  • Intro silence skip - skips silent introduction part of the songs
  • Rewind, Fast forward, Pause without breaking graphic
  • Access directly to the song you want to play


An octave is a doubling or halving of frequency. 20Hz-40Hz is often considered the bottom octave. Each octave you add on the bottom requires that your speakers move four times as much air!

Out of Phase

When speakers are mounted in reverse polarity, i.e., one speaker is wired +/+ and -/- from the amp and the other is wired +/- and -/+. Bass response will be very thin due to cancellation.


The sound level produced by a loudspeaker. The sound level produced by a loudspeaker.


A condition in which a system is given too high of an input level. A common cause of distortion or product failure.


Oversampling is typically used to describe a technique used when transferring between the analogue and digital domain, where a signal is sampled many times over and above that actually required by the sampling frequency.


Or Pre-amp is a device that takes a source signal, such as from a turntable, tape-deck or CD player, and passes this signal on to a power-amplifier(s). The pre-amp may have a number of controls such as source selector switches, balance, volume and possibly tone-controls.

RCA Connector

"Phono" plugs, used primarily as low-level connections between Phonographs/CD players/Tuners/Recievers/Amplifiers

Resistance (Re)

In electrical or electronic circuits, a characteristic of a material that opposes the flow of electrons. Speakers have resistance that opposes current. In electrical or electronic circuits, a characteristic of a material that opposes the flow of electrons. Speakers have resistance that opposes current.

RF Modulator

Adapter that converts signal from CDG or LD player thru cable to a non-video ready TV


Super CD+G (SCDG) technology allows manufacturers to burn a CD with literally thousands of songs on one single disc. Manufacturers will be taking their multi-disc packs and placing the entire set on one disc. This is a huge advantage! You will no longer be swapping discs in and out to get your favorite songs. Each SCDG will come with a songbook. There will be a key number for each song. Place the disc in the player, select all your key numbers, play the sound tracks. At present, the CAVS 103G, 203G and 303G players are required to play this format.

sound tracks

Music, and information stored on a discs and tapes. Example: CDs, CDGs, LDs, cassettes, video CDs, music soundtracks, and karaoke without lead vocal

Sound Waves

Sound waves can be thought of like the waves in water. Frequency determines the length of the waves; amplitude or volume determines the height of the waves. At 20Hz, the wavelength is 56 feet long! These long waves give bass its penetrating ability, (why you can hear car backfires blocks away).

Speed Control

Changes the tempo of the music


The quality of a sound that distinguishes it from other sounds of the same pitch and volume. The distinctive tone of an instrument or a singing voice.


A speaker, (driver), used to reproduce the higher range of frequencies. To form a full-range system, a tweeter needs to be combined with a woofer, (2-way system), or a woofer and midrange, (3-way system).


VCD stands for Video Compact Disc and is basically a CDG with video scenes stored in it. They are a normal 5” sized CDs but in VCD format. VCD format is different from DVDs and CDGs so you will need a karaoke player capable of reading VCDs.

Vocal Reducer

(vocal masking, vocal suppressor) - Reduces the level of vocal range on regular CD and audio cassette recordings. May reduce instruments in same range

Vocal Replacement

(voice cancel, vocal partner) - Mutes the recorded vocal on multiplex recordings when you sing into mic and brings them back up when you stop singing


A speaker, (driver), used for low-frequency reproduction. Usually larger and heavier than a midrange or tweeter.


Any type of connection that splits a signal into two parts. An example would be a connector with one male RCA jack on one end, and two female RCA jacks on the other end.